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Monday, 5 December 2016

Seeking into gut can provide solution to Parkinson's disease

Bacteria or Toxins can induce Parkinson (Image: Pixabay)

The whole idea of Parkinson disease development might be wrong if we haven't started with the gut, rather than brain. If this idea seems to be correct then the whole idea of treatment of Parkinson's would be game changing.

Parkinson's disease develop neuronal death leading to tremors and stiffness, leading to difficulty in movement. There are several drugs that provide treatment but the effect looses as the disease progresses.

One of the hallmarks is synuclein which is normally found as soluble molecules in healthy nerve cells, but in patients of Parkinson's something affects leading this synuclein to wrap in different shape and clump as fibres.
Idea of the research provided first clue decade ago when pathologists reported distinctive nerve fibres made of synuclein in the nerves of the gut during autopsies both in people with Parkinson and those without symptoms but had fibres in brain. They had suggested an unknown possible link with the microbe or toxin.

So to bring down the understanding to right sense the investigation provided clues that Parkinson patients often reported with constipation 10years before they notice tremors. Another added symptom was the loss of smell. As both of these organs are communicated with outside world so it is much possible that it is the effect of microbes or toxins.

Collin Challis and his colleagues at California Institute of Technology underwent mice model study, where they injected synuclein fibres into the stomach and intestine. After three weeks it was observed that fibres have developed in the brain and by two months it took control over the part of the brain that regulates movement. Consequently mice became much less agile which is equivalently observed in Parkinson's patients.

No single bacterium or virus has been pinpointed for this cause. Early evidence suggests that patients suffering from Parkinson's have different set of gut bacteria as compared to healthy people.
“It could be that having the wrong bacteria in your gut triggers inflammation,” says S├ębastien Paillusson at King’s College London. “We know that inflammation makes synuclein more likely to aggregate.” (Noted from New Scientist)

Some other studies have also shown that farmers who are exposed to certain pesticides like drinking water from contaminated wells are more likely to Parkinsons. So chemicals can also damage nerves of intestine.

Source: New Scientist


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